Asalka Nolosha (Origin of life)

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Maqaalkani wuxu xoogga saari doonaa Asalka Nolosha iyo aragtiyaha kala duwan ee khuseeya mawduucan. Saynisku wuxuu horay uga jawaabay Asalka Noolaha (Aragtida tadawurka) iyo Asalka Kawnka (Aragtida firdhadkii qarax-wayne) oo ah laba su’aalood oo miisaankooda leh.

 

Samaysanka Dhulka

Saynisyahannadu waxay isku raacsan yihiin muddo laga joogo 4.6 bilyan sanno ka hor in daruur boodh-gaaseed oo cufnaan badan leh heehaabaysa fagaagga oo la yidhaa SOLAR NEBULA ay isku duntay markii ay soo gaadheen xoogag ka soo firdhaday xidigo qarxay oo la jaar ahaa. Arintaasi oo garabsanaysa cufis-jiidadku waxay keentay in wareeg ay sameyso daruur-gaaseedkii isla markaana qaab dhismeedkeedi uu noqdo mid fidsan.

Badhtamaha daruurtaa waxa ku samaysmay qorraxda, halka walxihii soo hadhayna isku dhacyo badan ka dib ay isku urureen iyagoo samaynaya hordhac-meereed. Muddooyinkaa iyadoo lagu jiro, Meere-dhagaxeed loo bixiyay “Theia” oo cabir ahaan le’eg MARS ayaa ku dhacay dhulka kaasi oo gabi ahaanba burburay, walxihii ka soo hadhay qaraxaa waxa la isla garan ogyahay inay noqdeen dayaxa kadib markii cufis-jiidadku ku khasbay inay isku ururaan. Aakhirkii waxa aasaasmay meerayaashii kama dambaysta ahaa iyagoo u socda hal dhinac kuna wareegaya qorraxda.

 
Isku dhaca Dhulka iyo Theia

Inkastoo horraantii samaysanka Hab-xidigeedkeennu uu ka koobnaa daruur-gaas iyo dhagax-barafeedyo yaryar hadana markii qorraxdu samaysantay guud ahaanba wixii dhagax barafeed ku dhawaa way milmeen kulalylka badan ee qorraxda ka soo baxaya awgii. Hadaba waxa is waydiin mudan, biyaha 70% dhulkeena buuxiyay xagee ayay ka yimaadeen?

Saynisyahannada badankoodu waxay isku raacsan yihiin in biyaha dhulku asal ahaan ay ka yimaadeen cir-kasoo-dhaca barafka ah ee –Carbonaceous chondrites– oo ku samaysamay meel ka baxsan layn-barafeedka qorraxda (frost line).

 



Aragtiyaha Saynis ee ku wajahan asalka nolosha (hypothesis)

Inkastoo ay badan yihiin aragtiyaha saynis ee isku dayaya inay sharraxaan asalka nolosha, hadana waxaan ka xushay labada ugu faca wayn.

Aragtiyaha aan xusi doono dhamaantood waa (hypothesis) marka laga reebo Abiogenesis oo ah tan ugu cadaymaha badan, dhawaanahan dambana la soo gaadhsiiyay martabada “Theory”.


1.  Cosmozoic theory (Extraterrestrial origin or panspermia theory)

Aragtidan markii u horraysay waxa tibaaxay Hermann E. Richter 1865 oo ahaa dhakhtar Jarmal ah. Saynisyahanno kale oo taariikh ahaan ka dambeeyeyna way ka daba qaateen. Aragtidan waxay sheegaysa in noloshu ay ka bilaabantay meel kale oo aan dhulka ahayn, qaabab kala gadisanna ay ku soo gaadhay dhulka. Noole il-maqabatay ah oo ku dhagan dhagaxaanta fagaagga laga helo, ama soo raacay firdhad ka yimi meerayaal kale oo soo gaadhay dhulka ayay noloshu ka bilaabantay. Waa sida aragtidani sheegaysee.

Aragtidan waa suuragal cadaymo woxoogaa ahna way leedahay, laakiin su’aashii asalka nolosha ahayd kama aysan jawaabin, waxabad moodda inay sii adkaysay jawaabta su’aasha.

QORMO LA XIRIIRTA:  Farsamada Alle: Xamaaratadii dheddigga ahayd

Waxyaabaha dunidu ka taxadirto waxa ka mid ah fayrasyo ama bakteeriya keeni karta cuduro halis ah oo soo raacda cir-bixiyeenada marka ay ku soo laabtaan dhulka. Waana sababatii loo kaarantiilay cirbixiyeenadii maraykanka markii ay ka soo noqdeen dayaxa.


2. Abiogenesis (Biochemical origin)

Ugu horrayntii aragtidan laba saynisyahan oo Russia iyo Britain u kala dhashay ayaa la yimi, Oparin (1923) iyo Haldane (1928). Aragtidani waxay tibaaxaysa in noloshu ka timi taxane falgallo kiimikeed oo isku xigxiga una dhexeeya isku dhafyo curiyayaal ah.

Curiyayaasha fudud ee laga helo dhulka iyo gibilkiisa sida haydarojiinta, oksajiinta, kaarboonta, naytrojiinta iyo kuwa la midka ah ayaa sameeyey falgallo kiimikeed waxayna soo saareen iskudhafyada fudud ee aan dabiiciga ahayn (simple inorganic compounds) sida Amooniyada, HCN (hydrogen cyanide).

Iskudhafyadaa ayaa falgallo kale samaynaya iyagoo tamar ka helaya cadceedda iyo kulkeeda (UV rays), kaaha ka soo baxaya dhagaxaanta dhulka (radiation) amaba danabka, dhicitaanka falgalkan ayaa aad u adag una baahan tamar xad dhaaf ah. Aynu soo laabanee, natiijada falgalladaasi waxay noqonayaan isku dhafyada dabiiciga ah sida sonkoraha fudud, amino acids (simple organic compounds).

Iskudhafyadaa waxa laga yaaba in daadadku qaadaan, ama ay dabaylaha raacaan, ugu dambaynna ay galaan badaha guntooda iyagoo isku badali doona iskudhafyo kakan sida borotiinno, nucleic acids-ka oo laga yaabo inay sameeyaan RNA, iyadoo halkaa ka gali doonta aragtida caanka ah ee RNA world. (Aragti tibaaxaysa in nooloshu asal ahaan RNA ka bilaabantay).

Walxahaa kakan waxay isu badalaan –Coacervate– oo la odhan karo, waa shay u dhexeeya noole iyo iskudhaf (molecule). Tadawuro dheeraad ah Coacervate oo badaha guntooda ku baahsan waxay yeeshaan astaamihii noolaha oo kale sida inay quutaan nafaqooyinka kale ee badaha laga helo sida sonkoraha aan wali isbadalin iyo borotiinada. Sidoo kale waxa dhici karta in ay is badiyaan oo tarmaaan iyagoo kala go’ samayanaya. Marka ay guud ahaanba dhameeyaan molecules-kii ay quudanayeen waxa laga yaabaa qaar ka mid ahi inay u tadawuraan Autotroph oo ay cunadooda samaystaan iyagoo adeegsanaya hab la yidhaa chemosynthesis. Talaabo talaabo waxay u sii tadawuraan noole dhamaystiran oo cunnadiisa samaysan kara, ku nool badaha salkooda oo saynisyahannadu u bixiyeen LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor) oo ah Aabaha noolaha ama “Aadamka sayniska”.

LUCA

Aragtidan waxa tijaabiyay Stanly Miller (Miller experiment), waana lagu guulaystay, walxo inorganic ah ayaa loo badalay organic.

Tijaabada Miller


3. Aragtiyaha falsafadeed ee ku wajahan Asalka nolosha (sayniska hortii)

Su’aashan aynu jawaabta u raadinaynaa waa asalka noloshee kaliya diin iyo saynis ma khusayso, waa tiir ka mid ah tiirasha jiraalka, markaa waa hubaal faylasuufyada waa ka hadleen aragtiyana waa ku leeyihiin.

  • Thales of Miletus

Thales wuxuu ka mid ahaa faylasuufyadii ugu horeeyey taariikhda noolaha, sidoo kale waa faylasuufkii ugu horeeyey ee astaamaha kawnka iyo dhulka ku sharaxa il-maangaleed isagoo kala soocaya sheeko diimeedyada iyo dabiicadda aasaasna uga dhigaya xaqiiqooyinka la cabiri karo.

QORMO LA XIRIIRTA:  Dhaqan, Diin iyo Anshax Maxaa Isku Soohey?

Thales wuxu aaminsanaa in biyuhu ay yihiin asalka nolosha, noole walbaana uu ka samaysmay biyo hadii laga xuubiyana uu dhimanayo.

  • Anaximander of Miletus

Anaximander oo Thales wax ka bartay ayaa ka aragti duwanaa, isagoo tibaaxay in asalka noloshu biyo oo kaliya ahayn ee walax kale oo uu u bixiyay “Apherion” ay ku lamaanayd.

  •  Anaxagores of Clazomenae

Anaxagores oo ahaa ardaygii Anaximander ayaa isna mawduuca dhinac kale ka eegay, isagoo sheegay sirta jiraalka iyo nolosha ka dambaysaa inay tahay hawada.

  • Diogenes of Apollonia

Diogenes oo isna faylasuuf Greek ahaa ayaa laga hayaa aragtida ah in noloshu ay ka timi dab.

  • Empedocles of Acragas

Faylasuufka isna wuxuu tibaaxay in noloshu ka soo jeedo afar tiir oo kala ah, Kulaylka, qabowga, qoyaanka iyo qalaylka.

  • Aristotle (Spontaneous generation)

Aragtidan oo markii u horraysay faylasuufkan reer Greek xusay, ayaa ah noloshu inay ka timi ma noole. Isagoo ku ladhay tijaabo uu ku sameeyey Waslad hilib ah oo markay muddo taallay dirxi ku dhashay. Aragtidan waxay geed adag ahayd in ka badan 2000 oo sanno.

Tijaabada Aristotle

1668 Francesco Redi ayaa aragtidan kala diray isagoo sheegay in dirxigu ka yimi duqsiga dul fadhiisanaya hilibka ee uuna ka iman hilibka laftiisa. Sanado ka dib markii la ogaaday nolosha il-ma-qabatayda waxa si adag loo diiday aragtidan.

Tijaabada Francesco Redi

4. Aragtiyaha diimeed ee ku wajahan asalka nolosha

Aragtiyaha diimeed waa kuwa ugu qadiimsan ee isku daya inay mawduucan sharaxaan iyagoo nolosha iyo noolahaba u tiiriyo noole kale oo awood badan (Supernatural Being).

Diimaha Ibraahiimiga (Islaam, kiristaan, yahuudiyadda) waxay sheegan in uu jiro noole awood xad-dhaaf ah leh, kaasi oo abuuray kawnka iyo dhamaan noolaha dunida ku nool. una abuuray muuqa ay hadda leeyihiin iyagoo si toos ah u diidaya aragtida tadawurka.

Dadka diinta Hindusm haysta ayaa iayaguna aaminsan in kawnka, dhulka, badaha, wabiyada, dadka iyo dhamaan noolaha kalaba uu abuuray Ilaaha Brahma.

Tixraacyo

– The Origins of Life: From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language By John Maynard Smith, Eörs Szathmáry.
– Information Theory, Evolution, and the Origin of Life By Hubert P. Yockey
– The Greeks in Ionia and the East By John Manuel Cook.
– The Greeks A Great Adventure By Isaac Asimov

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Garaad Magan
Garaad Magan
2 Bilood Kahor

Qormo cilmi ah oo aad u qiimo bdn, mahadaanid Seeraar

Abdullahi M Hussein
Abdullahi M Hussein
2 Bilood Kahor

Mararka qaar wax saynis ka khuraafaad badan lama arag.
wax iska samaysmay ma jiraan ee wax walba oo la abuuray oo ay farsamo ka muuqato cid baa sidaa u agaasintay.

Mohamed Awnur
Mohamed Awnur
9 Maalmood Kahor

Waa xaqiiqo laakin wax kasto abuure maleh ogow hadad ku dhagsato meel xun bay kula galaysa

Ina abdule
Ina abdule
1 Bil Kahor

Qormo cajiib ah, waad ku mahadsan tahay sxp sidaas waqtigaaga ugu bixisay inaad noosoo gudbiso qoraalkan quruxda badan.

W/Q: Samawade Seeraar