Jiraalka iyo Micnaha Nolosha

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Aadan iyo Xaawo, sida diimaha Ibraahiimigu dhigayaan, markuu Ibliis tuhunka ku beeray oo ay geedkii laga mamnuucay cuneen, waxa markiiba u muuqatey cawradooda. Awal ceeb iyo cawraba mayna ka madhneyn, laakiin tuhunka ay isu nugleen ayaa miyir-daarey oo indhaha u fiiqey. Waxa hortooda mudh kasoo tidhi adduunyo dhan oo hore uga qarsooneyd, se hadda jixinjix la’aan indhahooda isku duugeysa oo meel ay uga baxsadaan jirin. Amardiiddada intayna ku kicin horteed, xeerka kaliya ee dajisnaa wuxuu ahaa inayna u dhawaan hal geed oo kaliya. Hase yeeshe, xorriyadda ka askuntey xeerkan (inay geedka cunaan ama aysan cunin) miisaankeeda Xaawo iyo Aadan way u babac dhigi waayeen. “Maxaa geedka loo mamnuucey? Maxaa dhacaya haddeynu cunno? Maxaa dhacaya haddeynu cuni waynno?”. Xorriyadda doorasho iyo jahliga ku hagoogan ayaa suuragaliyey inay Xaawo iyo Aadan ku dhacaan dabinka Ibliis, noloshooduna cadaab noqoto. Haduu awal miyirkoodu u dhigmayey feynuus hal go’aan oo kaliya bidhaamisa, hadda (oo janno laga tarxiiley) wuxuu isu rogey oogta waaberi; tallaabo walba oo ay qaadaanna waxa ku lammaanaa go’aan alle lagu raali galinayo ama lagu anfiyayo. Qisadan shakhsigii allifey wuxuu si nuxur leh hoosta uga xarriiqayaa xaqiiqda jiraalka aadanaha, oo ah xorriyadda xaddhaafka ah ee kownku ina dhaxalsiiyey. Waxa jeer walba ina hor fidsan malaayiinta suuro ee mustaqbalkeennu shabbihi karo, kuwooda la tiigsanayo iyo kuwa laga irdhoobaba. Haddana maadaama ay aqoonteennu marwalba qabyo tahey, dhimashana marwalba laga cabsi qabo, marna ma awoodno si hubanti ah inaynu go’aan ku gaadhno. Walaacu waa dareenka ka dhasha xaqiiqsashada sida aynu beylahda u nahey, cid aynu miciinsannaana u jirin.

How Dostoevsky predicted Trump's America
Dostooyefski
Indheergaradku wax ma noqon karo, doqonka oo kaliya unbaa wax noqda.
Dostooyefski, isagoo ka faalloonaya qodobkan, ayaa shakhsiyadda ay ku socoto buuggiisa “Notes from Underground” wuxuu ku catabayaa “Indheergaradku wax ma noqon karo, doqonka oo kaliya unbaa wax noqda.” Micnaheeduna yahey in qofka indheergaradka ah miyirkiisu marwalba daaran yahey, miisaanka iyo nuxurka go’aammadiisana ku dhugto diirad gaar ah. Sidaas darteed, markey xaaladi soo foodsaarto gurada oo kaliya kama fiiriyee kun siyaabo ayuu u dhawraa oo hadba dhinac kaga yimaaddaa, illaa marka danbe, sidey su’aalba ugu dhiibeyso midkale jahwareer la xagaldaaco oo bartuu taaganyahey ku ingago.

Doqonka se wuu ka dhago la’yahey silacan oo miyirkiisu waa feynuus oo kale, dhiillo kasta haddey jirto malaha garasho uu ugu dhagraariciyo. Halku-dhigga caanka ah ee odhanaya “jahligu waa nimco” shayga uu sida dadban u durayo maaha aqoonta, balse waa “miyir-daarnaanta.” Waayo dadku badi aqoon micno leh isma dheera, walaacu se wuxuu ku gooni yahey dadka dareensan nuglaanta xaaladda ay ku suganyihiin iyo sida sahlan ee ay qarka gabiga uga haadi karaan.

I.

Dadyowgii hore diin ayaa kaafin jirtey weydiimaha ku aaddan jiraalka iyo micnaha nolosha, qolo walbana waxey laheyd qiso-nololeed jiritaankooda minjo iyo madax u yeesha. Markey dunidu casriyowday se saynis ayaa masraxa la wareegay, suuqii diimuhu ka qadhaabsen jireenna baro-kiciyey. Waxa caan noqotey in aqoonta lagu qeexo wixii la cabbiri karo (measurable), sidaas darteedna mudnaanta waxa la siiyey wixii saynis ka biyo keeni karo. Isbaddalkan way soo dhaweeyeen bulshooyinkii ilbaxsanaa waayo horumar iyo dheef badan ayaa lagu qabey ikhtiraacyada saynisku sida joogtada ah usoo qufayey. Dhibku se wuxuu ka yimid, inkasta oo saynisku cidhiidhi galiyey khuraafaadkii dadku aaminsanaa, haddana doorkey bulshada uga jireen iyo baahida ay daboolayeen inuu xal u helo awooddiisa way dhaafsiisneyd. Sababtuna waa maadaama uu saynisku isku koobo waaqica ka madaxbannaan shakhsiga (objective reality), islamarkaana ka gaabsado midka ku xidhan shakhsiga (subjective reality). Maanta innagu haddeynu la jubbeysannahey kabanka Saalax Qaasin, saynisku taxgalin ma siinayo sida aynu ugu raaxeysanayno kabanka (maadaama ay shakhsiga u gooni tahey), oo wuxuu diiradda saarayaa tayada marka hoos loo sii dhaadhaco la helayo ee ka danbeysa shanqadha aynu maqalno, sida gargariirka hawada ee ka dhalanaya garaacista kabanka – taasoo inaga madaxbannaan.

Cilmi baadhista caynkan ah maadaama ay bilowgaba meesha ka saarayso dareenka iyo aragtida shakhsiyadeed (subjective experience), aqoonta laga korodhsado waxey noqoneysaa mid aan cilaaqo la laheyn shakhsiga (impersonal), nah iyo dhadhanna ka madhanyahey. Kolka la liido aragtida shakhsiyadeed, waxa soo hadhaa waa xaqiiqo dhab ah se ka dhago la’ shakhsiga (impersonal facts). Qodobkan waa muhiim waayo ma jiro mandiq lagu sahamin karo micnaha nolosha, weydiimaha nolosha u muhiimsanna maaha kuwa uu saynisku ku lug leeyahey. Niija (Nietzsche) kolka uu leeyahey “Eebe wuu dhintey!” wuxuu ka dardaarmayey maaheyn in khuraafaadku soo afjarmey, oo ah war lagu farxo, balse in aasaaskii micnaha nolosha iyo mabaadi’da bulshadu isku dhaqeysey iyagna bolol noqdeen, lama huraanna tahey in la helo dhufeys la iskaga gaashaamo suunaamiga micno-darro/cadamiyad (Nihilsm) ee qarqinaya cid kasta oo si daacad ah jiraalkooda u lafa gurta. Hase yeeshe, weydiimaha nolosha u muhiimsan hadduu saynis ka gaabiyey kama dhigna in waddo kale oo furan aysan jirin.

Edmund Husserl - Wikipedia
Edmund Huseral

Bilowgii qarnigii 20aad waxa shaac baxdey falsafadda loo yaqaanno finominoloji (phenomonology) oo yoolkeedu ahaa, sidii Deykaart, raad goobka aasaas aqoon oo dhan mideysa. Edmund Huseral (Edmund Husserl), oo aasaasey falsafaddan, iskuma mashquulin doodo mandiq ah isagoo islamarkaana iska indho tiraya dareenka iyo aragtida shakhsiyadeed balse taa caksigeed. Wuxuu diiradda saarey dhacdooyinka shakhsiyadeed ee qofku miyirsado (subjective phenomena) iyo habkii loo daraaseyn lahaa si waaqica looga sal gaadho. Aragtida u muhiimsan ee Huseral loo nisbeeyo, saldhiggana u ah afkaartiisa kale, waxey ka hadleysaa jiheysnaanta miyirka (intentionality of consciousness). Miyirku marwalba wuxuu ifiyaa wax isaga dhaafsiisan, oo uu ku jiheysanyahey. Huseral, isagoo ka jawaab celinaya dooddii Deykaart wuxu ina leeyahey, miyirku waxyaalaha uu ifinayo in la isweydiiyo iney jiraan macno ma sameyneyso, waayo miyirkaagu maaha qasnad ama calool intay warbixinta jaqdo, kala habeyso, dabadeedna suuro u yeeleysa si ay dib kuugu soo bandhigto. Si toos ah ayaad u miyirsataa dareenka iyo aragtiyahaaga shakhsiyadeed. Finominoloji, oo saameyn togan ku yeelatey sayniska iyo guud ahaanba falsafadda, waxey u gogol xaadhay nidaamyo cilmi baadhis oo waaqica looga sal gaadhayo, se markan miyirka iyo dareenka shakhsiyadeed ay udub-dhexaad u yihiin.

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Horumarkan wuxuu suuragaliyey daraaseynta arrimo badan oo saynisku ka deyriyey sida tayada shakhsiyadeed ee ku lammaan waaqica (subjective character of objective reality), nuxurka (essence) iyo micnaha ku duugan dunida ku hagoogan shakhsiga. Tusaale ahaan, amminka (time) waxeynu dhihi karnaa gabi ahaanba qofka uu ka madaxbannaanyahey. Hooyada dhuusamareeb asayda ku sidda iyo gabadha Oslo ku baashaaleysa isku si bay saacaddu 60 daqiiqo ugu tahey. Hooyada silaca iyo murugada ku jirta se saacaddaasi maalmo ayey ula mid tahey, halka gabadha baashaaleysa aysan ilbidhiqsi uga duwaneyn. Tayadan shakhsiyadeed ayaa wakhtiga u yeeleysa cuf iyo culeys isaga u gaar ah (ekstatic temporality). Talada odhaneysa “wakhtigu yuusan ku dhaafin” micnaheedu maaha inaad xeerarka kownka jabin karto si aad wakhtiga u hakiso, balse in dareenkaagu ka warhayo cufka saameynaya socdaalka wakhtiga si aad uga faa’iideysato oo uusan maalayacni kaaga dhumin. Laakiin amminka oo kaliya maaha, dunida aad ku nooshahey oo dhan waxa ku duugan tayo shakhsiyadeed taasoo u yeeleysa micno iyo nuxur dhaafsiisan unugyada iyo qaab-dhismeedka saynisku ka faalloodo.

Martin Heydager (Martin Heidegger), oo kamid ahaa ardeyda Huseral, wuxuu sanaddii 1927 allifey buugga uu ku caan baxey ee “ahaanshaha iyo amminka” (Being and Time). Maadaama uu finominolojist ahaa, mashruuciisa waxa uu kaga faalloodey habka aadanuhu u jiro – asal ahaantiisa. Heydager wuu ka soo horjeeday kala soocidda shakhsiga iyo dunida uu ku noolyahey (subject vs object), waayo shakhsigu xubin ka soocan dunida oo kaligii gaar loo daraaseyn karo maaha. Insaanku waa xaalad-ku-nool (being-in-context), waaqiciisa waxa micna u yeela taariikhda, dhaqanka, iyo bulshada uu ka tirsanyahey. Tusaale ahaan, qalinku micno ma sameynayo haddeyna jirin khad, buugaag, far la qoro, dadkii qori lahaa, iwm. Suuragal maaha inuu erayga qalin goonidii micno u sameeyo, oo haddaad qaamuuska ka baadho wuxuu ku qeexayaa erayo kale, erayadaas oo iyagna kusii qeexmaya erayo kale. Heydager, isaqoo qodobkan muujinaya, wuxuu aqoonta u qeybinayaa mid waayo-aragnimo lagu korodhsado (know-how), iyo mid ogaansho ah (know-that). Aqoonta uu qofku mandiqiisa ku curiyo (know-that) waa mid mar walba qabyo ah, waayo waxa la isku dayayaa in shay (sida qalin) la qaadadhigo oo intii diiradda la saaro sida duntii laga siibo marada uu ku tolanyahey ee micnaha u yeeleysa. Aqoonta waayo-aragnimo se way ka madhantahey fakar iyo aragtiyo. Tusaale ahaan, kolkaad qalin isticmaaleyso, miyirkaaga kuma furna buuq ku saabsan micnaha qalinka iyo sida aad u kala soocantihiin, oo dareenkaagu gabi ahaanba wuxuu ku idilyahey shaqada aad qalinka u adeegsaneyso (sida qoraalka). Aqoontan maaha mid hadal ama aragtiyeyn (theorizing) lagu qasbayo lagaga bogan karo.

Kolka loo fiiriyo Heydager, inkastuu shakhsigu ku baraarugo isagoo badhtamaha ugu jira kawn aan rabintaankiisa marna ka wareysan, haddana dunida uu qofku u miyirsado maaha mid qariib ah oo uusan afgraneyn, balse waa mid uu fahmayo oo durbadiiba micno u sameyneysa. Sababtuna waa maadaamo aynu nahey noolaha kaliya ee jiraalkiisa mushkilad ka qaba. “Maxaa meeshan i dhigey?” nafley kale kuma baroorato. Ololahan micno-raadis ayaa keenaya in aynu god walba micno ka baadhno, dunida inagu xeeranna hoy ka dhiganno. Hase yeeshe, marka la hadal hayo micnaha nolosha, waxa la maagganyahey maaha micnahan soke. Micnaha soke waa mid ilbidhiqsi ku suura, oo gibilka sare aan dhaafsiisneyn; halka micnaha dadku raadiyaan yahey mid nolosha u yeela dacallo loo kala safri karo iyo yool in la hanto lama huraan tahey. Su’aashu se waxa weeye, bartee loogu hagaagaa micnahan?

II.

Inkastoo ay geerida micno-diimeedku istaahisho baroordiiq, haddana waxey sidoo kale dhalisey fursad istaahisha alalaase iyo mashxarad. Micnaha noloshu awal wuxuu ahaan jirey wax qaydan, oo in la raadiyo oo kaliya u baahan. Hadduuse jirin micno cayiman, waxey ka dhigantahey qofku wuxuu xorriyad u leeyahey inuu micno allaala micnuhuu rabo noloshiisa u yeelo. Baadigoob baddalkeed, qofka ayey masuuliyaddiisa tahey inuu handaso, oo ku nuuxnuuxsado nuxurka noloshiisu yeelaneyso, sida farshaxan (art) oo kale. Giddigeen waxeynu ku gudo jirnaa qiso-nololeed, qisaadiisa se mid taran u qalanta inay noqoto iyo in kale cidda go’aamineysa waa shakhsiga.

Way adagtahey in faylasuufyada jiraalka (waa haddiiba lagu magacaabi karo koox) hal af loo yeelo, waayo illaa xad waxey u ololeeyaan “kali ahaanshaha” iyo qofku inuusan marna garashadiisa iyo damiirkiisa cid kale u wakiilan. Waaqica uu shakhsigu ku dhaqanyahey cid la wadaagta ma jirto, sidaas darteed munaasab maaha in dhabbo nin kale xaadhey hunguri kaa galo. Sartera (Jean Paul Sartre) wuxuu masiibooyinkii qarnigii lasoo dhaafey (sida dagaalladii dunida) u nisbeynayaa dad masuuliyaddoodii shakhsiyadeed dayacey oo nafsaddooda u hoggaamiyey afkaar shisheeye oo dadyow kale sameysteen. Inkastoo mufakiriinta u madax taagan falsafaddan ay ahaayeen alle-caabud (sida Dostooyefski iyo Kiirkagaardh), haddana waxyaalaha mideynayey iyaga iyo feylasuufyada alle-koodka ah (sida Niija iyo Sartera) ee ay dhufeyska wadaagayeen waxa kamid ahaa naceybka ay u qabeen madaahibta iyo diimaha dadka xakameeya, xorriyadoodana inkira. Hanku cabbir u qaydan malaha oo wax walba qofku wuu hiigsan karaa, laakiin waxa dabraya shakhsiga ee cagaha dhulka ugu haya waa sameyska iyo bay’ada (sida caafimaad, garasho, hanti iwm). Farqiga u dhexeeya insaanka iyo, tusaale ahaan dhagaxa, waa kartida uu insaanku ku hanan karo mustaqbal uu kaga samatabaxayo xaaladda haysata. Halka dhagaxa iyo nooleyaasha kaleba ay marwalba sameyskooda go’doon ku yihiin.

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Siduu ina leeyahey Sartera, insaanka xorriyaddiisa waxa marwalba ragaadisa duruufta uu ku suganyahey. Marka inkasta oynu awoodin inaan samada iska heehaabno sida rooxaanta, haddana waxeynu awoodnaa inaynu marwalba ka gudubno xaaladda aynu ku jirno. Nafta oo daacad loo noqdo marka waa tayada saldhigga u ah micno kasta oo aan khuraafaad iyo khayaano ku dhisneyn. Tusaale ahaan, dadka ka gubta xaqdarrada bulshadeennu ku hayso dumarka, islamarkaana meelmariya caadooyinka soo jireenka ah ee horseedaya xaqdaraddaas, khayaano ayey naftooda ku maaweelinayaan. Inaad ku cudur-daarato diin, karti, ama duruufo kale waxey lamid tahey isqeexitaan aad naftaada ka dhigeyso wax go’an ama cayiman sida dhagaxa oo kale. Qofku se maadaama uu ka gudbi karo carqaladaha lasoo darsa (ha ahaadaan kuwa la xidhiidha karti, diin, bulsho iwm), inuu dayaco doorka uu ka geysan lahaa xaq-raadiska dabadeedna marmarsiiyoodo waxey lamid tahey khayaano nafsadeed, oo uu qofku isu qiran la’yahey in buuqa iyo qeylada uu wado ay tahey goolaaftan been salka ku haysa. Waxaa se isweydiin mudan heerka ay gaadhsiisantahey xorriyadda insaanku ku “xukumanyahey” iyo saameynta ay leedahey duruufta dib-rideysa. Curyaanku dabcan wuu awoodaa inuu dhexda giijisto oo dhiggii wax la qeybsado, hadduu se ka taag roonaan waayo junuudda uu la hardamayo ee dib-dhigeysa, ma xaq baa in la dhaho qeyrka-hadhnimada isagaa is badey? Sartera wuxuu qabey in miyir-hoosaadku (subconscious) saameyn wax ku ool ah ku laheyn go’aan qaadashada shakhsiga, dadkuna si isla-joog ah noloshooda gadhwadeen uga yihiin. Muhiimaddu se maaha in la waadixiyo barta ay ku egtahey xorriyadu, balse in qofku yaqiinsado xorriyadda qoorta u sudhan islamarkaana uusan ka ugaadhoobin masuuliyadda ka dhalaneysa – ha yaraato ama ha weynaatee.

III.

Feylasuufyada kor ku xusan oo dhan waxey wadaagaan tayo ah mucaaradnimo. Kulligood waa dad ku fara saydhey hab fakar-dhaqameedkii u dejisnaa bulshada ay ka tirsanaayeen. Arrinta soo jiidaneysa qofka qoraalladooda wax ka akhriya se waa quudhsiga ay mandiqa hoos ugu dhigayaan. Hase yeeshe, runtii waxey dhalliilayaan maaha mandiq balse habka ay dadku badi u adeegsadaan mandiqa. Waaqica intiisa lagaga sal gaadhi karayo mandiq waa muhiim in isaga loo adeegsado, waayo waddo kale uu furan maba jirto. Micnaha noloshu se kamid ma aha waaqicaas, si walba oo loogu qasbana marna mandiq looma yeeli karo. Inaad ifka timaado goorta aad timid, adiga oo sita dhaqanka aad sidatid (halka aad ka dhalan laheyd wakhti kale, una dhalan laheyd isir kale), oo miyirkaaguna ku garowsiyo dhimashada kuu danbeysa, dabadeedna noloshaada oo dhan aad ku dhammeysato sidaad isku illowsiin laheyd walaaca iyo walbahaarka ay dhimashadaasi kugu beereyso, waa wax lagu qoslo (absurd) oo aan caqliga u cuntameyn. Noloshaada marka inaad u xayirto mandiq aad uga fadhido inuu micno ku milkiyo waa xalqo u qalanta taxanaha maadeysiga istaahila ee aynu ugu yeedhno “nolosha”.

Albeer Kamuu
Micnaha noloshu waa hadba wixii aad gacanta kula jirto ee kaa hor taagan inaad naftaada khaarajiso.

Albeer Kamuu (Albert Camus) wuxuu ku gunaanadey “micnaha noloshu waa hadba wixii aad gacanta kula jirto ee kaa hor taagan inaad naftaada khaarajiso“. Si marka loo fiiriyo, waa hadal dhab ah waayo qofka uu micno oo dhan noloshiisa faaruqiyey wax u diidaya inuu isdilo ma jiro. Si kale se marka loo fiiriyo, waxey u muuqataa gunaanad khadhaadh oo si aan munaasab aheyn nolosha suuro khaakh ugu yeeleya. Dabcan “noloshaada micneyso” waa odhaah guud oo siyaabo badan loo fassiran karo, micno cayimanna aan laheyn. Tusaale ahaan, Heydager wuxuu xubin gadaal ka raacey xisbigii faashiistaha ee naasiga. Waa natiijo dabiici ah in mashruuc walba oo dadku isku hawlo la helo shakhsiyaal meel daran la aada, bulshadoodana aafeeya.. Arrintan se dhalliil uma noqon karto micno-sameyska, waayo micnaha noloshu waa wax shakhsiga ku xidhan, oo cid kale aysan la qeybi karin. Sartera wuxuu arrintan ku hogatusaaleynayaa wiil ardeydiisa kamid ahaa oo ay talo ku ciirtey. Waxa lagu jirey dagaalkii labaad ee dunida wuxuuna rabey inuu ciidanka gobannimo-doonka faransiiska raaco oo dalkiisa xoreeyo , hooyadii oo uu kaligii garab u ahaa se ma rabin inuu cidleeyo. Sartera wuxuu ku doodaya ineysan jirin cid ka saacidi karta go’aanka ah inuu sida qeyrkii dalkiisa nafta u huro ama hooyadii wehel u noqdo. Go’aanka culeyskaa leh ee nolosha qeexi kara waa mid ardeyga Sartera waligii gooni u ahaanaya. Marka inkastoo ay u muuqato guubaabin oo kaliya, noloshu waxey ku dhaanto malaha murtidii duugga aheyd ee odhaneysey “naftaada dhab u ahow.”

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