Waaritaan (Immortality)

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Ma lagu waari karaa nolosha?

Si guud marka loo eego erayga “waaritaan” waxa uu ka dhigan yahay – in nolosha lagu waaro. Waa nolol aan dhammaad lahayn oo dhimasho la’aan ah. Balse marka laga eego dhanka diimaha midba si bay u dhigtaa; doodaha falsafadeed ee ka warrama ruuxda si bay u sharxaan; sayniskuna si buu u arkaa waaritaanka nolosha.

Haddaan ku hormarno diimaha, tusaale ahaan diimaha Ibraahiimiyada la isku yiraahdo (Islaamka, Kiristaanka, iyo Yuhuudda) waxa ay qabaan in dhimashada kaddib la isa-soo-saarayo iyo nolol danbe (After life) – oo noloshaas danbe lagu waari doono; halka Hinduism-ku ay qabto in naftu ku wareegto nooleyaal badan (Reincarnation) oo marka naftu ka baxdo qof ay soo galayso qof kale oo dhashay ama noole kale-ba, sidaasna ay ku waarayso ruuxdu; iyo siyaabo kale oo diimaha kale ay qabaan ayaa jira.

Haddaba aan u gudubno sayniska oo aan qoraalka intiisa badan uga hadli doonno. Saynisyahannadu waxa ay is-wayddiiyaan noloshaan adduunka sidee loogu sii waari karaa? Sidee dhimashada looga hortagi karaa? Iyo wayddiimo caynkaas ah. Maxaa wacay ? Saynisku maleh iimaan ka baxsan dabiicadda (nature). In la fahmo nolosha iyo dabiicadda iyo sida ay u shaqayso waa saynis, in wixii la fahmay la adeegsado oo la manaafacsado waa tiknoolajiyad, marka rumayntaada iyo aaminaadaada afaaraheeda saynisku ma galo waxna kuma uu dhiso – taasi waa shaqada diimaha iyo aqoonta kale ee aadanaha (humanities). Haddaba saynisyahannadu waxa ay yiraahdaan dhimashada waxaa keena saddex waxyaabood: duqoobidda (aging); cudurrada (diseases); iyo waxyeello (physical trauma). Haddii xal loo helo saddexdaas waxaa la gaari karaa in nolosha adduunka lagu waaro (immortality).

  1. Duqoobidda/Gabowga (aging):
Aubrey de Grey
Aubrey de Grey

Aubrey de Grey waa qoraa iyo cilmibaare ingiriis ah oo haddana ah xeeldheere “Biomedical Gerontologist” siiba cilmiga isbeddellada bayoolaji ee da’da la xiriira (Biogerontologist), sidaas oo kale waa tifaftiraha aqoongeyska layiraahdo ”Rejuvenation Research” – waa aas-aasaha hay’adda khayriga ah ee ”SENS Research Foundation” oo u taagan istiraatiijiyaddiisa farsamo ee lagu ciribtirayo duqoobidda – waa ay inoo soo socotaa ka hadalkeedu. Balse marka hore aynnu kasoo bilawno sida uu Aubrey u qeexay ”Duqoobidda/gabowga”:

  • Duqoobiddu ama gabowgu waa isbeddello is-biirsaday oo ku dhaca habdhismeedka mulukuyuullada iyo unugyada noolaha duqoobay, isbeddelladaas-na waxaa ugu wacan shaqada jirka (metabolism), haseyeeshe jeerka ay sii socdaan waxa ay isku beddelaan cudurro (pathology) sababa geeri.

Aubrey waxa uu isbeddeladaas u hormeeyay toddobo nooc oo mid kasta waxa uu raaciyay xalkeeda, waxa uuna ugu wanqalay: Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence ( SENS ) oo lagu afsoomaaliyeyn karo – Istiraatiijiyadaha farsamo ee lagu ciribtirayo duqoobidda. Haddaba aynnu mid mid u dul istaagno toddobada isbeddel ee jirka aadanaha ku keena in qofka da’du ka muuqato ama duqoobo oo uu geeryoodo, iyo mid kasta xalkeeda:

B. Nuclear mutations/epimutations—OncoSENS – Khaladaadka bu’da: waa isbeddel ku yimaada bu’da siiba hiddesidaha (DNA) ama borootiinnada isku haya hiddesidaha, taasoo keenaysa kaankaro (cancer). Haddaba xalku waa in laga hortago kaankarada ama dawo loo helo, sidaas darteed SENS waxa ay soo jeedisay istiraatiijiyad layiraahdo – “whole-body interdiction of lengthening telomeres ” (WILT), oo kadhigan; in la joojiyo geesaha koromosoomka ee sii dheeraanaya; taasina waxaa suurtagalin kara adeegsiga aqoonta caafimaadka ee dib-uhabeynta iyo farsamaynta jirka ( periodic Regenerative Medicine treatments).

T. Mitochondrial mutations—MitoSENS – Khaladaadka mitojondariyaha: Mitojondariyuhu waa dhismaha unugga u soo saara tamarta, sidaas darteed waxa ay noqotaa meel oksijiingarowday (oxidated) oo aan helin nidaam dayactira, waxaana mitojondariyaha ku dhaca isbeddel khaldan oo keena unugyo ragaasa (cellular degeneration). Waxaa xal u ah wax loogu yeeray “Allotopic expression” oo ah in hiddesidaha mitijondariyaha loo koobiyeeyo bu’da unugga yar.

J. Intracellular junk—LysoSENS – Haraadiga unugga gudihiisa: maadaama ay shaqo badan ka socoto unugga oo uu intaas borootiinno iyo iwm jajabinayo waxaa ku hara gudihiisa haraadi qashin ah oo aan la burburin karin loona baahnayn, waxa uuna sababaa dhibaato. Waxaa xal u ah in xubinta dheefshiidka u qaabilsan unugga ee “lysosome” lagu kaabo maadooyin dheeri ah oo wax burburiya (enzymes) si qashinkaas meesha loogu burburiyo.

X. Extracellular junk—AmyloSENS – Haraadiga unugga bannaankiisa: haraadi badanaa barootiinno ah ayaa isku aruursada dibadda unugga, kaas oo aan jirku burburin karin ama dibadda iskaga soo saari karin, waxa uuna sababaa cudurro sida; sacsaca ama asaasaqa (Alzheimer’s disease), iyo kuwo kale. Xalku waxa weeye in la xoojiyo nidaamka difaaca jirka ee liqa ama isku-dahaara haraadiga aan loo baahnayn ee loo yaqaan”phagocytosis” , iyo in loogu daro dawooyin yaryar oo furfura xirmooyinka kiimikada ah ee haraadiga. Wixii intaas lagu xallin waayo oo qashin wayn ah waxaa lagu soo saarayaa qalliin (surgery).

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Kh. Cell loss and atrophy—RepleniSENS: Unugyo baaba’ : unugyada qaar baan la beddeli karin haddii ay baaba’aan, unugyada oo yaraadana waxa ay saameyn wayn ku yeeshaan ”tissues” muhiim ah. Tusaale ahaan marka ay yaraadaan unugyada murqaha (muscle cells) ee qalfoofta murqaha iyo wadnaha waxa qofka kasoo ifbaxa tabardarro waayeelnimo. Sidoo kale barta madaw ee bartamaha maskaxda ee layiraahdo “substantia nigra” haddii ay lumiso unugyada neerfaha ah ee “neurons”-ka waxa ay sababtaa lalleemada (Parkinson’s disease). Xalka arrintaan waxaa lasoo jeediyay dhowr waxyaabood oo daryeel (therapies) u badan sida; jimicsiga, cunsurrada korriimada (growth factors), daryeelka unugyada tarma (stem cell therapy), caafimaadka dib-uhabeynta (regenerative medicine), iyo farsamada tissue-ga (tissue engineering).

D. Cell senescence—ApoptoSENS – Unugyo istaag: waa xaalad ay unugyadu joojiyaan inay sii qaybsamaan, mana dhimanayaan oo waxa ay lasoo taagan yihiin falal taban sida; in ay barootiinno qariyaan, isgoysyada lafaha istaajiyaan, difaaca jirka istaajiyaan, ikk. Haddaba xalku waa in unugyada noocaas ah lagu baaba’sho “apoptose” iyadoo la adeegsanayo; suicide genes, tallaal, iyo senolytic agents. Kolkaas ayaa la tarminayaa unugyada caafimaadka qaba.

R. Extracellular crosslinks—GlycoSENS – xargaha unugyada isku haya: tissue-ga gudihiisa waxaa unugyada isku haya barootiinno, kolka barootiinnadaasi ay bataan waxa ay cusleeyaan tissue-ga oo waxa uu kari waayaa dhaqdhaqaaq, waxaana uu sababaa dhibaatooyinkaan sida; darbiyada halbawlaha oo barara ama adkaada (arteriosclerosis), aragga fog oo daciifa (presbyopia), dunta maqaarka oo daciifta (duuduub), ikk. Haddaba xalka waxa ay SENS soo jeedisay in la hormariyo mulukuyuullo yar-yar oo dawooyin ah iyo enzymes si loogu jabiyo xargahaas cayilay.

  1. Cudurrada (diseases):

Haddii laga guuleysto qodobka koowaad ee duqoobidda iyo cudurrada u gaarka ah, waxaa jira cudurro kale oo aan la xiriirin da’da, sidaas darteed ayaa istiraatiijayaddaan dhexdeeda loogu baahday qodob labaad oo cudurrada u gaar ah, cudurradu waxa ay sababaan geeri haddii aan laga hortagin ama la daweyn. Haddaba cudurrada aan dawada lahayn waa kooban yihiin, xalkuna waa iyaga oo loo helo kahortag iyo dawo labadaba.

Fahanka aadanuhu u yeeshay genetics-ka ayaa horseeday in dawo loo helo cudurro aan horey loo daweyn jirin – fahankaas oo sii batana waxa uu daweyn doonaa cudurro hor leh; sidaas oo kale waxaa lasii fahmayaa doorka caafimaadka kahor-tagga (preventive medicine); xilli dhow waxaa cudurrada ay kamid-ka yihiin “Parkinson’s” iyo “Alzheimer’s” lagu daweyn doona “stem cells”; shaqada bayoolajiga unugga (cell biology) iyo cilmibaarista geesaha koromosoomka (telomeres research) waxa ay horseedaysaa daweynta kaankarada (cancer); AIDS-ka , Ebola-ha, ikk, ayaa dawadoodii jidka kusoo jirtaa; agabyo samays ah (artificial devices) oo lagu dhajiyo nidaamka neerfaha (nervous system) ayaa camoolaha (blind) u soo celin kara araggiisii; ikk.

  1. Waxyeello (physical trauma):

Duqoobidda haddii laga takhaluso, cudurradana laga hortago ama la daweeyo, waxaa wali taagan waxyeello jirka aadanuhu u nugul yahay oo bannaanka ka timaada kuwaas oo sababi kara geeri sida; shilalka, birta wax disha, neef ku dhajinta, biyo ku hafashada, gaajada iyo asqada, ikk. Qaybtaan waa qaybta xalkeedu ugu adag yahay, sababtoo ah waxa ay mugdi galinaysaa in nolol bayoolaji ah lagu waari karo (biological immortality), balse hormarka ay sameynayso tiknoolajiyadda ilma-aragtayga ah (nanotechnology) waxaa laga filanayaa in loo adeegsado heer mulukuyuul iyo heer unug , si jeerka waxyeello daran soo gaarto jirka uu iskii isku dayactiro. Haddaba haddii la helo dad adeegsada farsamada kahortagga waxyeellada, oo ay isticmaalaan therapies-ka duqoobidda looga hortagayay, caafimaadkoodana ay la socdaan oo ay cudurrada la diriraan ama iska daweeyaan, waxa ay gaari karaan waaritaan bayoolaji ama ugu yaraan cimri aan horey loo gaari jirin sida dhowr boqol ama kun sano (life extension). Mar haddii la arko dad dadaalladaas inta sameeyay gaaray cimri aan horey loo gaari jirin waxa ay caddeyn u tahay in ay bayoolaji ahaan sii waari karaan hadday dadaalladaas sii wadaan. Waxa aan halkaan yara dul istaagaynaa adeeg caafimaad oo loo sameeyo dadka hadda dhinta ase ka raja qaba in mustaqbalka ay ka faa’idaysan karaan waaritaanka nololeed -waa haddii dhismaha jirkooda iyo maskaxdooda la ilaaliyo – adeegaasna waxaa layiraahdaa jirdhowrid (cryonics).

Jirdhowrka

Jirdhowrid (cryonics): adeeggaan waxaa loo sameeyaa dad horey u sii dalbaday inta aysan dhiman, isla judha ay dhintaan ayaa jirkooda lagu hayaa nidaamyo qaboojiyayaal ku dhisan (-130°), si xogta maskaxdooda kujirta barteeda loogu hayo, si mustaqbalka loo soo celiyo, sidaas oo kale jirka shaqadiisu waa ay istaagtaa (pause metabolism) mana qurmayo (decay). Dadka qaar ayaa maskaxdooda kaliya u sameeya jirdhowritaan (cryopreservation). Dhammaan dadka raba jirdhowridda waxa laga diiwaan galiyaa sababaha ay u dhinteen, sababahaasina ma ahan kuwo aqoonta caafimaadka iyo tiknoolajiyadda xilligaan wax looga qaban karo, balse mustaqbalka waxa ay filanayaan in tiknoolajiyadda iyo aqoonta caafimaadku xal u helayso sababta ay u dhinteen (siiba culuumta; biological engineering, moleculer nanotechnology, nanomedicine, iwm), jeerkaasna lasoo celin karo (revival) oo jirkoodii loo dhawray ay kusii shaqayn karaan. Jir-loo-dhawrayaasha (cryopreservants) waxa ay u kala rajo badan yihiin baa la dhahaa sida ay u kala danbeeyeen (last-in, first-out) oo xilliba xilliga ka danbeeya waxaa hormaraya tiknoolajiyadda lagu jirdhowrayo. Ilaa hadda dad tira badan ayaa loo sameeyay adeeggaan, siiba maraykanka ayaa ugu badan meelaha laga helo adeegga jirdhowridda.

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Haddii walaac laga muujiyo in la gaari karo waaritaanka bayoolajiyeed waxaa la male’awaaley waaritaan muuqaal kale leh oo aan bayoolajiba ahayn (physical immortality). Sidee? Horta qofku majiri karaa jirka la’aantiis (ama ma ka guuri karaa jirkaan bayoolajiga ah oo ma u guuri karaa agab kale oo soo dhaweyn kara – oo aan dabiicadda ka baxsanayn – sida nidaam kumbuyuutareed)? Qofku waxa uu noolaan karaa isaga oo addimo go’an, oo beer iyo kilyo uusan lahayn ay ugu jiraan, sidaas oo kale haddii lagu guuleysto xubno-isku-rakibidda (organ transplant) kale ee waawayn sida madax-isku-rakibidda (head transplant), iwm, oo haddana la arko qofkii oo wali nool – qofkaasi waxa uu ku noolyahay; addimo uusan lahayn, beer iyo kilyo uusan lahayn, madax uusan lahayn ama maskax uusan lahayn, iwm oo waliba xubnahaasi qaar ayaa gacan-kusamays ahaan kara, – haddaba qofkaasi meeyay? Isagu muxuu yahay? Marka aynnu ku fekerno xayndaabka sayniska oo aynnu meel iska dhigno ruux iyo naf iyo wax kasta oo spiritual ah, waxaa la oran karaa qofku waa maskaxda! Mayee waa xogta maskaxda! Mayee xog bilaa miyir ah qofku ma ahane, waa miyirka (consciousness)! haddaba miyirka iyo maanku (mind) waxa uu ka dhashaa shabakadda neerfaha ee maskaxda iyo xaaladaheeda (mental states) oo arrintaas waxaa ku baraarugsan hadda xitaa falsafadda ku talaxtagtay “mind-body problem” siiba “neurophilosophy” laanta loo yaqaan, sidaas oo kale waxaa ku baraarugsan “neuropsychology”, kolkaas haddii la koobiyeeyo inta la sawiro (scan) qariiddada neerfaha maskaxda ee qof, oo wixii xog ahaa la safriyo loona diyaariyo meel kale oo u diyaarsan in ay qabato oo ku shaqayso, oo jeerkaasna miyirka (consciousness) qofka laga helo isaga oo jooga meeshii cusbayd ee loo guuray – aragtida iyo shaqada noocaas ah ayaa layiraahdaa maskax-koobiyeyn (Mind-uploading).

Maskax Koobiyeyn

Dadka maskaxdooda lasoo koobiyeeyay ayaa ku dhex miyirsan kara kumbuyuutar system iyagoo ku dhex jira, oo halkii awal ay jir bayoolaji ah oo tamarta kahela cunnada ay kujireen, hadda waxa ay ku dhex jiraan qalab (hardware ah) oo tamarta ka hela korontada. Mar haddii uu halkaas miyir ku haysto (consciousness) waxa uu gaaray waaritaan nololeed oo digital ah (digital immortality), waxaa lagu dili karaa oo kaliya qalabka oo la burburiyo, balse sidii hore waa uu ka fursad badan yahay haddii uu khatar dareemo waxa uu isku koobiyeyn karaa kumbuyuutar kale oo dunida meel ka yaalla maadaama uu internet helayo. Qaabkaas qofku uusan shaashada kombuyuutarka soo dhaafayn marka laga tago, waxaa qofka loo diyaarin karaa qolfoof gacan ku samays ah oo dad u eke ah (humonoid robot) oo lagu koobiyeyn karo maskaxdiisii, sidaas-na uu ku helayo dhaqdhaqaaqiisii caadiga ahaa sida markii uu jirka haystay oo kale – dhanka waaritaanka marka laga eego wuu waari karaa inta qalabka uu ku dhex jiro uu bedqabo.

Haddaba qoraalka oo dheeraaday awgiis, waxa aan kusoo gaabsanaynaa, in waaritaanka nololeed ee saynisku uu tooshka ku ifinayo ay kala yihiin labo nooc: waaritaan bayoolaji ah (biological immortality) ama ugu yaraan cimri dherer aan horey u jirin (life expansion); iyo haddii taas hore lagu guuleysan waayo in waaritaanka nololeed laga eego dhanka kale oo muuqaallo kale ku dhisan (physical immortality) siiba in nolosha la “digital”-gareeyo, sida maskax-koobiyeynta oo la gaaro waaritaan digital ah (digital immortality). Sidaas oo kale waxaa jira aragtiyo falsafadeed oo saynisku uu saameeyay oo ku dooda in la gaari karo waaritaan nololeed iyadoo la adeegsanayo tiknoolajiyadda siiba caqliga samayska ah (artifical intelligence), ama in dadka iyo mashiinnada inta la isku geeyo awooddooda laga soo saari karo wax qof ka sarreeya garaad ahaan iyo awood ahaan-ba, oo ay sidaas ku gaaraan heerka labaad ee dhallanroganka, magaca falsafaddaas waxaa la yiraahdaa “Transhumanism”.

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